Scientific Program

Day 1

KEYNOTE SPEAKERS
  • Astrocytes and glutamate in striatum: A2A-D2 receptor-receptor interaction controls glutamate release from striatal astrocytic processes

    University of Genova
    Italy
    Biography

    Manuela Marcoli has completed her MD degree from Pavia University, Italy (PhD. Degree in Clinical Pharmacology from Pavia University, Italy). She is Professor of Pharmacology at the University of Genova, Italy. She has over 85 publications that have been cited over 1300 times, and her publication H-index is 22 and has been serving as a Reviewer of reputed Journals.

    Abstract

    In the 1980s, a new model of chemical signal recognition/decoding was proposed, according to which integrative information handling already occurs at membrane level, via receptor-receptor interactions. Specifically, evidence for striatal A2A and D2 receptor-receptor interaction in A2A-D2 heterodimers in striatal neurons, opened new perspectives on the Parkinson's disease pathophysiology, and provided new targets for anti-parkinsonian drugs. Roles for astrocytes, the most numerous cells in the nervous system, and relevance of the neuron-astrocyte network function in disease vulnerability are increasingly recognized. In particular, astrocyte dysfunction at tripartite synapses and altered glutamatergic transmission are emerging in neuropsychiatric disorders including the Parkinson's disease. Despite the change from a neurocentric to an astrocentric view of neuropsychiatric disorders, and major attention to striatal A2A and D2 receptors, striatal glial A2A and D2 receptors have so far received scarce attention. Our findings suggest - combining confocal microscopy and functional neurochemical approaches on purified preparations of astrocyte processes from adult rat striatum and indicate a crucial integrative role of A2A-D2 circuits at the plasma membrane of striatal astrocyte processes in the control of glutamatergic transmission. Indeed, we obtained evidence that: D2 and A2A receptors are expressed in striatal astrocyte processes; D2 receptors inhibit the release of glutamate from astrocyte processes; astrocytic A2A and D2 receptors can form A2A-D2 heterodimers; homocysteine can reduce D2-mediated control of astrocytic glutamate release. It is to note that hyperhomocysteinemia has been hypothesized to play roles in tardive L-dopa side-effects in Parkinson’s patients. Notably, expansion of presynaptic astrocyte processes, and altered neuron-astrocyte interactions at striatal glutamatergic synapses, have been found in Parkinson's disease. Thus, reduced D2-mediated control at striatal presynaptic astrocyte processes might result in an increase in synaptic glutamate level and in turn helps understand how astrocytes (and remodeling of astrocyte processes) contribute to the pathophysiology of Parkinson's disease

  • Mechanisms underlying adverse endocrine and metabolic side effects of atypical antipsychotic (AA) medications: Central vs. direct effects

    University of New England
    USA
    Biography

    Karen L Houseknecht is currently Professor of Pharmacology, College of Osteopathic Medicine, and Interim Dean of the College of Pharmacy at the University of New England (Portland, Maine USA). She received her PhD from Cornell University and has held multiple leadership positions in academic and corporate research organizations. She is the author of over 50 peer-reviewed publications and her NIH-funded research program focuses on new therapeutic discovery (including drug metabolism) and the pharmacology underlying adverse metabolic effects of psychiatric medications

    Abstract

    Atypical antipsychotic medications (AA) are FDA approved for psychosis associated with schizophrenia, bipolar disorder and irritability associated with autism. AA display complex pharmacology, antagonizing multiple G-protein coupled receptor families. Antagonism of dopamine receptors is thought to be a pivotal component of clinical efficacy. Despite FDA warning labels for metabolic side effects, these are among the most highly prescribed drugs world-wide due to prescribing for non-approved indications. Common clinical side effects include obesity, dyslipidemia, hyperglycemia, sudden cardiac death and increased fractures. Despite the severity of these side effects, there is a paucity of literature examining the underlying pharmacology. We and others have shown that central/indirect side effects of AA include increased appetite and obesity, hyperprolactinemia and hypothalamic insulin resistance, which underlies hepatic insulin resistance. The mechanisms underlying AA-induced dyslipidemia and increased fractures have not been elucidated. Our laboratory is focusing on the emerging side effects of AA medications on bone. Clinical data show that fracture risk is elevated in schizophrenic patients treated with AA vs. the general population, and limited studies show that patients treated with risperidone (RIS) have reduced bone mineral density. We hypothesize that AA impact bone biology by both indirect and direct mechanisms. Our approach includes evaluating effects of clinically relevant doses of AA in pre-clinical models as well as direct effects on bone cells in vitro. We explored the role of hypogonadism in RIS-induced bone loss and developed bioanalytical methods to quantify dynamic concentrations of dopamine and RIS in bone marrow to evaluate possible direct drug effects in vivo. Our overarching goal is to elucidate the pharmacology associated with undesirable health effects of AA medications to better inform prescribing practices and drug discovery efforts. With such a large patient population taking these medications, these data are of special concern for vulnerable populations including children and the elderly.

Clinical Pharmacology | Reproductive and Developmental Toxicology | Pharmacogenetics
Chair
Co-Chair
Speaker
  • Standardized platelet releasate products for clinical applications in cell therapy: A mathematical approach and an innovative quality control test
    Time: 11:25-11:45
    Speaker
    Francesco Agostini
    CRO Aviano National Cancer Center
    Italy
    Biography

    Francesco Agostini is a Senior Scientist (Biologist) at the Aviano National Cancer Center (Aviano; PN, Italy). He studied at the University of Trieste where he obtained his PhD in Molecular Biomedicine in 2010. He is involved in Translational Research focusing his interest on GMP-compliant methods to expand mesenchymal stem cell for targeted drug delivery in the oncology field.

    Abstract

    Background: Expanded mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) can be utilized for advanced cell therapy. Growth factors can be extracted from human platelet concentrates by physical or chemical methods. Standardized animal-free ancillary materials are required to obtain expanded MSC (Good Manufacturing Practice). Pooling single-donor products reduces variability, but the minimal pool size was never determined. A method predicting biological activity of additives is presently lacking: NMR spectroscopy and MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry provide widespread molecular characterization of biological samples. Methods: Platelet-apheresis products were frozen and thawed to obtain platelet lysates (PL) or added with CaCl2 to produce Supernatant-rich-in-growth-factors (SRGF). Growth rates of MSC cultured in media containing PL or SRGF were compared. Concentrations of n=10 growth factors were measured by ELISA in n=44 single-donor SRGF. Data matrix was analyzed by a novel algorithm simulating pools (n=500) of single-donor data with growing sample size (from n=2 to 20) and estimating coefficient of variation (CV). For validation we measured a) the CV of growth factor concentrations in n=10 pools manufactured according to algorithm results, b) growth rates of MSC expanded by separate SRGF batches. NMR and MALDI-TOF spectra composition of single-donor PL and SRGF were analyzed. Results: SRGF promoted higher proliferation rate vs PL. Growth factor concentrations in single-donor SRGF showed high variability. In silico analysis suggested that pooling n=16 single-donor SRGF reduced CV below 20%: results were confirmed assessing CV of concentrations in real pools of n=16 single SRGF. Separate SRGF pools failed to differently affect MSC growth rate. NMR and MALDI-TOF spectroscopy demonstrated segregation between PL and SRGF products. Discussion: Results suggest that SRGF performs better than PL to stimulate MSC duplication. Our validated algorithm demonstrated that pooling n=16 single-donor SRGF products ameliorates consistency of biological activity of SRGF batches. NMR and MALDI-TOF could predict quality of media additives for cell therapy products.

  • Prospects in the field of pharmacotherapies for Down syndrome
    Speaker
    Sandra Guidi
    University of bologna
    Italy
    Biography

    Sandra Guidi graduated in Biology at the Bologna University, Bologna, Italy (2000). She carried out a post-degree training at the Department of Human and General Physiology in Bologna (2000-2007). From 2008 she is Assistant Professor of Physiology, Medical School, University of Bologna and lecturer of Neurophysiology. Her research work focuses on the mechanisms underlying impairment of brain development in a mouse model Down syndrome, with the ultimate goal to devise therapies potentially transferable to individuals with DS. She is author of over 30 publications that have been cited over 1200 times. Her publication H-index is 18.

    Abstract

    Down syndrome (DS), a relatively high-incidence genetic condition due to triplication of chromosome 21, is characterized by brain hypotrophy and intellectual disability. There are currently no effective therapies for intellectual disability in DS. Since brain hypotrophy is due to impairment of neurogenesis and dendritogenesis starting from prenatal and early postnatal life stages, the perinatal period represents a crucial time window of opportunity for possible interventions aimed at restoring these processes and, possibly, intellectual disability. Based on these premises, the overall goal of our study was to establish whether it is possible to restore the trisomy-linked neurodevelopmental defects with early pharmacological intervention. To this purpose, we have exploited the Ts65Dn mouse, a model of DS that mimics the human condition. We have targeted pathways that are crucial for neurogenesis and are known to be deranged in the DS brain. We identified various drugs that can restore neurogenesis and obtained evidence that some of them elicit long-lasting effects on cognitive performance. In my presentation, I will compare and discuss the potential translational value of the tested drugs. In view of its relatively high incidence, DS represents a public health problem and source of concern for families and caregivers. Demonstration that early therapy may restore the defects of the DS brain in a DS model may prompt clinical trials in children with DS and open a breakthrough regarding intellectual disability in DS.

  • Anti-cancer effect and apoptosis induction of cordycepin through DR3 pathway in the human colonic cancer cell HT-29
    Time: 12:05-12:25
    Speaker
    Beong Ou Lim
    Konkuk University
    South Korea
    Biography

    Beoung Ou Lim is an Assistant Professor at Department Of Life Science in Konkuk University, glocal campus, South Korea. He earned his Master’s degree from Kyushu University in 1994 and achieved his PhD in Food Chemical Engineering from the same university in the year of 1997. Currently he has over 50 publications as a corresponding author. His recent publications include “Preventive and therapeutic effects of blueberry extract against DSSinduced ulcerative colitis regulation of antioxidant and inflammatory mediators,” His current research interest includes the food medical bio-compound.

    Abstract

    Cordycepin is known to have many pharmacological effects such as anti-tumorigenic, anti-in?ammatory and anti-angiogenic activity. However, cordycepin induced apoptosis through the DR3 pathway in human colon cancer cells has not been studied. The effect of cordycepin on anti-proliferation was investigated in this study. Cordycepin signi?cantly inhibited cell viability in a dose and time-dependent manner. Cordycepin increased sub G1 and G2/M phase arrest on HT-29 cells at the concentration of 100 µM, whereas cordycepin at 200 µM and 400 µM increased G1 phase arrest. Cordycepin induced apoptosis in HT-29 cells in a dose-dependent manner as detected by Hoechst and Annexin V-FITC staining. Intracellular ROS levels were higher in cordycepin treated cells as compared to control cells. The protein related to apoptosis was determined by antibody array. p53 and Bax expression increased treatment with cordycepin for 18 h. DR3, caspase-8, caspase-1, cleaved caspase-3 and cleaved PARP expression increased. These ?nding suggest that the cordycepin induces apoptosis through the DR3 pathway in human colon cancer HT-29. These ?ndings suggest that cordycepin should be evaluated further as a therapeutic agent in human colon cancer

  • Identification and characterization of baicalin as a phosphodiesterase 4 inhibitor
    Time: 12:25-12:45
    Speaker
    Yongmun Choi
    Gyeonggido Business & Science Accelerator
    South Korea
    Biography

    Yongmun Choi has completed his PhD from Baylor College of Medicine, USA in 2005. He is a Principal Investigator in Biocentre, Gyeonggido Business and Science Accelerator (GBSA). His research involves identification and characterization of bioactive small molecules and natural products, which can bridge the gap between academic discovery and drug development.

    Abstract

    Asthma is a chronic inflammatory disease of lung airways and pharmacological inhibitors of cAMP-specific phosphodiesterase 4 (PDE4) have been considered as therapeutics for the treatment of asthma. However, development of PDE4 inhibitors in clinical trials has been hampered due to the severe side effects of non-selective PDE4 inhibitors. Here, screening of a plant extract library in conjunction with dereplication technology led to identification of Baicalin as a new type of PDE4-selective inhibitor. We demonstrated that while Rolipram inhibited the enzyme activity of a range of PDE4 subtypes in in vitro enzyme assays, Baicalin selectively inhibited enzyme activity of PDE4A and 4B. In addition, baicalin suppressed LPS-induced TNF? expression in macrophage where PDE4B plays a key role in LPS-induced signaling. Furthermore, baicalin treatment in an animal model of allergic asthma reduced inflammatory cell infiltration and TNF? levels in BAL fluids, indicating that the anti-inflammatory effects of Baicalin in vivo are attributable, in part, to its ability to inhibit PDE4.

  • Importance of Pharmacokinetics in concerning with coffee
    Speaker
    Myat Thu Thu Win
    AIMST University
    Malaysia
    Biography

    Dr. Myat Thu Thu Win received her M.B., B.S, M.Med.Sc (Pharmacology) from the Institute of Medicine (I), Yangon, Myanmar in 2002 and 2005 respectively. She got Japanese Government Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science, and Technology (MEXT) scholarship for PhD and finished her Ph.D (Japan) at Graduate School of Medical Science Kanazawa University in 2013. She joined as postdoctoral in the same University for 3 months and then doing as a Medical Consultant in Myanmar. She had not only teaching and research experience more than 7 years but also had clinical experience in Myanmar more than 8 years. She accepted offer from AIMST University in 2016 and currently doing as a senior lecturer in the Faculty of Medicine, Asian Institute of Medical, Science and Technology (AIMST) teaching medical and dental students. She published 3 articles during her PhD study and total citation 70, H-index 3 and i10- index 2.

    Abstract

    Pharmacokinetics is absorption, distribution, metabolism and excretion of drugs. This can be changed by various factors including food and drinks. People are unaware of this pharmacokinetic changes effect and will suffer therapeutic failure and toxicity of the drugs. One of the good examples is that antibiotics like cifran ( Ciporfloxacin 500mg) taken together with milk reduce the concentration of this drug. In my study, I measured how the common analgesic, antipyretic drug Acetaminophen (Paracetamol 500 mg) can be changed when taken together with coffee containing different concentrations of caffeine (65 mg and 195 mg). The reason I chose the coffee was that most of the people drink coffee every day. Some drinks 1-2 cups but some drinks 4-5 cups or more per day. It was said that there was association between prevention of cognitive decline, and reduced risk of developing stroke, Parkinson's disease and Alzheimer's disease and lifelong coffee or caffeine consumption. In my study, I used non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug Paracetamol (Acetaminophen) taken together with 150 ml of water, coffee 1g & 3g containing 65 mg & 195 mg of caffeine in healthy male volunteers between 20- 45 years of age. Bloods were collected before the drug taken and 0min, 15min, 30min, 45 min, 1hr, 2hr, 4hr, 8hrand 24 hour after taking the drugs and serum paracetamol concentration were measured by using Spectrophotometry. The results showed that there was faster absorption when taken together with coffee containing 65mg of caffeine but slower absorption together with coffee containing 195mg of caffeine, increased area under concentration curve and prolong excretion of paracetamol when taken together with coffee. It was suggested that it is better efficacy if paracetamol is taken together with coffee but frequent taking of this drug should be avoided to prevent toxicity of drug cause of prolonged excretion of paracetamol.

  • Male reproductive toxicity induced by quinalphos
    Speaker
    Guruprasad Kalthur
    Kasturba Medical college
    India
    Biography

    Dr. Guruprasad Kalthur is a Professor in Clinical Embryology, Kasturba Medical College, Manipal University, Manipal. He is working as Clinical Embryologist and also the Coordinator of the Postgraduate course in Clinical Embryology. He is actively involved in postgraduate teaching and the research programs in the field of reproductive biology. He has received and successfully completed of numerous grants, funded by the Department of Biotechnology (DBT), Department of Science & Technology (DST), Indian Council of Medical Research (ICMR), Department of Health Research (DHR) etc. His major area of research is reproductive toxicology, parthenogenesis, cryopreservation of gametes and embryos and using natural products for improving the gonadal function. He has published more than 60 publications in peer reviewed journals. He is the ICMR international fellow and has received other fellowships and awards. To name few- Boyscast fellowship, Cutting Edge Research fellowship (CREST), UICC ICRETT fellowship, publication award from Vision group of Science and Technology (VGST), etc.

    Abstract

    Quinalphos is one of the widely used insecticide in India which falls under organophosphate group of pesticides. It is commonly preferred pesticide in cultivation of paddy, mustard and wheat etc. It is highly neurotoxic which inhibits acetylcholinesterase and known to cause neuronal dysfunction. However, there is no much information on its reproductive toxicity. Therefore, this study was undertaken to investigate the effect of quinalphos induced testicular toxicity. For the study, 8 weeks old male Swiss albino mice were orally administered with 0.25, 0.5 and 1 mg /kg body weight of commercially available quinalphos (25%) for 10 days and were observed till 35 days. The mice were dissected to assess the testicular function and epididymal sperm parameters. At none of the doses used in the study, quinalphos induced any significant effect on the sperm count. However, the motility was significantly lower (p<0.01) and sperm head abnormalities were significantly higher (p<0.01) in quinalphos treated mice indicating that the quality of spermatozoa produced are poor. In addition, an elevated level of DNA damage was observed in the testicular cells of these mice. The pharmacokinetic studies revealed that a high tissue distribution and slow clearance was observed in testicular tissue. The computational interaction analysis revealed its strong interaction with BCHE (butyrylcholinesterase), ESR2 (estrogen receptor 2) and ESR1 (estrogen receptor 1).

  • Effect of the encapsulation on the phenolic composition and the antioxidant activity of Pallenis spinosa during the simulated gastrointestinal digestion
    Speaker
    Boulekbache-Makhlouf L
    University of Bejaia
    Algeria
    Biography

    BOULEKBACHE-MAKHLOUF L. has expertise in the extraction, characterization and evaluation of the biological activities of natural substances for their use in the food and pharmaceutical industries. She is a team leader in the research laboratory: Laboratory of Biomathematics, Biophysics, Biochemistry, and Scientometry (L3BS) at the University of Bejaia in Algeria and responsible of the doctoral training: Bio-resources, Environment and Technology Agro-food.

    Abstract

    Pallenis spinosa (L.) Cass. belong to the family of Asteraceae, widely distributed throughout the Mediterranean area. This plant is used in folk medicine as curative or preventive remedies for various diseases. In this work, we investigated the effect of the encapsulated extracts on the phenolic compounds and the antioxidant activity of Pallenis spinosa in the simulated gasrointestinal digestion. Folin-Ciocalteu Reagent was used for the determination of the total phenolic content in different parts of P. spinosa, HPLC-DAD method was used for the characterization of the individual compounds, the antioxidant effect was evaluated by using three different assays (DPPH, ABTS and FRAP assays) and the encapsulation of phenolic compounds extracts was made with hydroxypropylmethylcellulose. The phenolic compounds from Pallenis spinosa were signi?cantly altered during the gastro-intestinal digestion. The encapsulation of different extracts induced their substantial protection namely ferrulic, gallic and chlorogenic acids, kaempferol, gallocatechin gallate, catechin and Kaemferol-3-glucoside. These effects were more pronounced on the major phenolic compounds (ferulic, gallic and chlorogenic acids) and antioxidant capacity. The activity of the phenolic compounds from P. spinosa became higher during the in vitro digestion with the encapsulated extracts

  • DNA Fragmentation as a bio-indicator for long term effect of radiation on workers of radiation departments of Faisalabad hospitals
    Speaker
    Salma Sultana
    Government College University Faisalabad
    Pakistan
    Biography

    Dr Salma Sultana, working as Associate professor, Department of Zoology, GC University,Pakistan, is HEC approved PhD Supervisor. I have completed my Post Doctorate Funded by HEC from Newcastle University, UK, Ph.D (Biology); M.Phil (Genetics) from Quaid-i-Azam University, Islamabad. I have research expertise in the field of bimolecular techniques, Genetics, Fisheries ; Epidemiology of Genetic Diseases toxicology (aquatic and occupational). I have more than 20 years teaching experience and more than 12 year post doctoral teaching and research experience as Lecturer, Assistant Professor and Associate Professor. I have been awarded by three projects as BC-HEC (JHELP-II) project as Link ; Co-link Coordinator (2006-2009), Co-PI In HEC funded project and BC-HEC (INSPIRE-II) project entitled as team member and as CO-PI in NRPU funded by HEC, Pakistan. Presently I am working as Director Academics of GCUF and Manager external linkage in ORIC-GCUF. I have worked in the capacity of Deputy Director Student affairs ; Research (Sciences), Focal Person for Anti-plagiarism, Member of fee rationalization, migration, equalence and university vigilance committees, Warden of university hostels and different duties at departmental level. I am life time member of Pakistan Proteomic Society ; Zoological Society of Pakistan ; member Pakistan Society of Aquaculture and Fisheries. I have also published 63 peer reviewed papers

    Abstract

    The study was carried out at hospitals of Faisalabad especially (District Head Quarter Hospital (DHQ), Punjab Institute of Nuclear Medicine (PINUM), Allied Hospital and other private hospitals. The 100 subjects were selected and divided into 2 groups, 1st group of control (no exposure) and 2nd group which were indirectly exposed to radiation. A questionnaire was developed and the subjects who have at least 4-15 years of indirect exposure and belong to 20-50 years of age were selected. DNA fragmentation was examined. The % DNA fragmentation was calculated. The mean age of workers of different hospitals was non-significantly different (p>0.05).The minimum number of workers belongs to 24-28 years of age group, whereas maximum number belongs to 34-38 years. The minimum number of control was observed in 44-48 years of age group, and maximum number in 39-43 years of age groups. The workers of age group of 39-43 and 44-48 years were absent in FIC whereas DHQ and private hospitals lack workers in 24-28 years age group. The minimum exposure duration was 4 years In DHQ, FIC and private hospitals whereas it was 5 years in Allied hospital workers. In DHQ, Allied, FIC and private hospitals the maximum exposure duration were 15, 14, 11 and 15 years, respectively. The exposure duration of workers belonging to different hospitals was non-significantly different (P>0.05). In DHQ the minimum age was 29 years and maximum age was 46 years with mean % DNA fragmentation ± S.E (58.98 ±1.35). In Allied hospital the minimum age was 28 years and maximum age was 45 years with mean % DNA fragmentation ± S.E (57.29±1.17). In FIC the minimum age was 24 years and maximum age was 35 years with mean % DNA fragmentation ± S.E (56.17 ±1.50). In Private hospitals the minimum age was 29 years and maximum age was 46 years with mean % DNA fragmentation ± S.E (58.43±0.82). The different age groups showed highly significant effect of % DNA fragmentation (P<0.01).The % DNA fragmentation showed positive and highly significant (p<0.01) correlation with age and exposure duration. The % DNA fragmentation at different hospitals was non-significantly different (P>0.05). The long term exposure of ionization radiation causes induction of DNA damage. The % DNA damage increases with increasing age and exposure duration in radiationally exposed workers. The present study showed % DNA fragmentation could be use as a biomarker for the estimation of radiological effects in occupationally exposed workers.

Neuropharmacology | Toxicology | Generic Pills and Generic Medication| Office of Generic Drugs (OGD)|Biologics & Biosimilars|Pharmacology and Drug Developement
Chair
Co-Chair
Speaker
  • Neuroprotection as an effective strategy in the therapeutics of Neurodegenerative disorders
    Speaker
    Sadhana Sathaye
    Institute of Chemical Technology
    India
    Biography

    Prof. Sadhana Sathaye is an eminent research scientist working in the field of pharmacology with an academic experience of 24 years. The overreaching fields of her research encompass various neurological and neurodegenerative disorders like epilepsy, Parkinson’s and Alzheimer’s disease along with diabetes mellitus and related complications. Her research group works with a clear vision of establishing novel therapeutic interventions as well as neutraceutical supplements by exploring herbs and modern medicinal drugs. She has over 63 national and international publications to her credentials and has been a renowned speaker in several esteemed national and international conferences. Her horizon is not limited to academia but expands to industry wherein she extends her services as a consultant to the pharmaceutical industry in India.

    Abstract

    Neurodegenerative disorders like Alzheimer’s disease (AD) and Parkinson’s disease (PD) are progressive in nature. Essentially there is a loss of neuronal activity in specific areas of brain. This can be attributed to oxidative stress mediated lipid peroxidation of neuronal cell membrane, abnormal misfolding and accumulation of certain proteins in the brain like ?-synuclein, amyloid ? or hyper phosphorylated TAU that leads to neuronal as well as synaptic dysfunction. This in-turn activates release of inflammatory mediators like TNF-?, bradykinin, Glial Fibrilary Acidic Protein (GFAP) etc. These inflammatory mediators further initiate neuronal cell degeneration compromising the functions of brain and continuing the disease progression. AD essentially manifests as dementia, loss of memory whereas PD manifests as tremors at rest, rigidity, bradykinesia and loss of coordinated movements. Currently available therapies for these degenerative disorders take care of the symptoms to certain extent. However, they are unable to treat the neurodegeneration or even halt the progression of the disease hampering the patient’s quality of life. We at ICT aim towards delaying the progressive nature of these disorders, by targeting the underlying pathophysiology causing neurodegeneration along with offering symptomatic relief. We identify phytoconstituents or existing drugs based on available scientific literature and screen them using biomarkers for neuroprotection. Biomarkers like Tyrosine Hydroxylase, ?-synuclein and Mitochondrial complex I are explored for PD and Acetylcholine esterase, Choline acetyl transferase, Amyloid ?, TAU protein, Mitochondrial complex IV for AD. Major biomarkers of our interest include molecules involved in inflammatory, oxidative, neurotrophic and apoptosis cascades for both AD/PD. We aim at identifying substances which would essentially offer neuro-protection and correlate the effect of these substances on explored biomarkers, with the behavioral parameters. This approach of tackling the progressive neurodegeneration, the prime cause of symptoms, will revolutionize therapeutics yielding better quality of life to AD/PD patients.

  • Curcumin attenuates depression-like symptoms by advocating dopaminergic and serotonergic neurotransmission in rotenone-induced rat model of Parkinson’s disease.
    Speaker
    Syeda Madiha
    University of Karachi
    Pakistan
    Biography

    Syeda madiha is doing PhD from University of Karachi, Pakistan. She is doing research in Parkinson’s disease. Her research work is basically related with animal model of Parkinson’s disease. In her research work she is using rotenone which is one of the main environmental toxins in order to induced PD-like symptoms in rats and finding treatment by using antiparkinsonian drugs. She is having 9 publications. She has participated in two different an international congress and represented her research work. She has participated in so many national research conferences

    Abstract

    Background: Rotenone (organic pesticide and environmental toxin) has been associated to increase Parkinson’s disease (PD) prevalence in population. Depression is one of the main non-motor symptoms of PD. Rotenone exposure in rats provides a remarkable model for studying mechanism of environmental toxin-induced depressive-like behaviors and can be used to test potential compounds for possible therapeutics. Curcumin exhibits neuroprotective action in neurodegenerative diseases. A number of pharmacological effects of curcumin have been studied, however effects of curcumin on rotenone-induced depressive-like symptoms have not been studied yet. Objective: In the present study we investigated the effect of pre-treatment of curcumin on rotenone-induced depressive-like behaviors and neurotransmitter alterations in rat model of PD. Methods: In the present study, curcumin (100 mg/kg/day, p.o.) was supplemented for 15 days which was then followed by rotenone (1.5 mg/kg/day, s.c.) injection for 8 successive days. Depression-like behaviors were monitored by the forced swim test (FST) and open field test (OFT). Animals were decapitated after behavioral analysis and striatum was dissected out for neurochemical estimations. Results: Results showed that the immobility time in FST was significantly (p<0.01) increased, swimming time and number of jumps were significantly (p<0.01) decreased in rotenone administered rats as compared with their respective controls (Fig. 1). In OFT latency to move and immobility time were significantly (p<0.01) increased in rotenone treated rats (Fig. 2a, 2b). All these behavioral deficits were accompanied by the reduction of striatal dopamine (DA), 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT), and 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA) content following rotenone administration (Fig. 3). Pre-treatment with curcumin significantly (p<0.01) reversed the despaired behavior (Fig. 1, 2a, 2b) induced by rotenone and significantly (p<0.01, p<0.05) improved neurotransmitter levels as compared to rotenone injected rats (Fig. 3). Conclusion: In conclusion, this study provides evidence that curcumin exhibits antidepressant-like activity against rotenone-induced depressive-like behaviors and restored neurotransmitters alterations.

  • Genetically engineered resveratrol enriched rice, a best dietary solution for the treatment of aging, neuroinflammation and neurodegeneration
    Speaker
    Lalita Subedi
    Gachon University
    South Korea
    Biography

    Lalita SUBEDI is pursuing her PhD in College of Pharmacy at Gachon University, Incheon, South Korea. She is a Brain Korea (BK) Scholarship holder for her PhD course. She is doing research in aging and neurological disorders, especially in neuroinflammation. Her research work is basically related with the biological activities of natural compounds or nutraceuticals against aging and neurological disorders including neuroinflammation and neurodegeneration. Through her research project she is studying on UVB-induced skin aging in mice, Lipopolysaccharides (LPS)-induced neuroinflammation in central nervous system (CNS) cell lines, scopolamine induces memory impairment in mice etc. She has a strong belief on beneficial role of phytochemicals and food components against such disease conditions. Till the date, she has 36 publications including 9 publications as first author and 2 as corresponding author. She has been awarded with best poster presentation award from two international conferences which were held in South Korea. She has also presented her oral and poster presentation of her research work in many national and international conferences in Nepal, South Korea, and United Kingdom

    Abstract

    Resveratrol has several biological activities against various disease conditions such as, photoaging, inflammation, obesity, metabolic disorders, vascular diseases, viral infections and cancer too. On a negative note, resveratrol has a significant cytotoxicity to the normal cells even at the effective concentration for disease. This limitation makes a shade on the brilliant potency of the resveratrol against various disease. During the search of generating more safe and effective dietary consumption of resveratrol, we generated a transgenic rice plant that enriched resveratrol in their grains so called resveratrol rice (RR). Though the normal rice we select to make transgenic also has a potency to fight against various conditions such as UVB induced skin aging, LPS (Lipopolysaccharide) induced neuroinflammation and activated microglia mediated neurodegeneration however, RR has significantly higher potential then normal rice and almost similar potency to that of pure resveratrol and more importantly without the cytotoxicity to normal cells as resveratrol possess. ROS mediated skin aging (specially through MMP’s, apoptosis and inflammaging), LPS mediated neuroinflammation (through MAPK-NF-kB-cytokines) and activated microglia and other toxicant induced neurodegeneration was dramatically reversed with the treatment of RR with out and cytotoxicity and unwanted effects to normal cells. These results totally support the fact that RR will be a best alternative for safe and effective treatment of variety of human ailments specially inflammation, aging and related disorders. Aging and aging-related neuronal disorders are most annoying conditions for personal health as well as the beauty of individuals, so food component having the potential against both of these conditions will be the most interesting topic for the further research.

  • Fish organs histopathology exposed to domestic wastes and industrial effluents revealing the toxic effects in selected fish species
    Speaker
    Tayyaba Sultana
    Government College University Faisalabad
    Pakistan
    Biography

    Dr. Tayyaba Sultana, working as Professor in the Department of Zoology, Government College University, Pakistan, and an approved PhD Supervisor. I was among the approved scientists/engineers for Research Productivity Awards for the three consecutive years i.e., 2010, 2011 and 2012 by the Ministry of Science and Technology, Pakistan. My core expertise is in the field of Biological Sciences and my focused areas of research are in Fisheries, Aquatic/Environmental/Genetic Toxicology & Pollution, Cell & Molecular Biology, Genetics, Genetic Epidemiology and biomedical sciences.I have more than 20 years teaching experience and more than 12 year post-doctoral teaching and research experience. I have worked in the capacity of Associate Director (Central Hi-Tech Lab), Deputy Director (PARF), Convener Central Purchase Committee, Incharge Bioinformatics Department, Incharge Student Consulting Center, Focal Person for HEC 5000 indigenous Mphil leading to PhD scholarship, Member of Academic Council, Advanced Studies and Research Board, Migration, Equalence and university vigilance committees. I have more than 55 international/ impact factor journal publications. I have one book publication on my credit by VDM an international publisher.I am a reviewer of many peer reviewed journals.

    Abstract

    This study was designed with an objective to study the effect of domestic wastes and industrial effluents on water and aquatic organisms particularly fish. These effluents were collected from Chakbandi Drain containing different industries effluents and domestic wastes. Representative water samples from each site were collected in 1.5L capacity of polypropylene bottles with polyethylene caps from the five selected sites along the drain. The experiment was performed in glass aquaria containing fingerlings of approximately of ~5-8 gm each of Cirrhinus mrigala, Catla catla and Labeo rohita. These were exposed to composite sample of drain effluents after acclimatization. After acclimatization fish were divided into 2 groups one as experimental and other as control group. Three sub lethal dilutions of the textile effluents were tested for three months. The fish were fed commercial diet 3-4 % of wet body weight. The histopathological changes were observed and compared with control. Histopathological changes in the gill, kidney and liver were observed. The glomerular shrinkage, increased spaces between glomerulus and Bowman’s capsule, increased tubular lumen in the kidney were observed. In liver were intravascular hemorrhage, vacuolar degeneration, severe hemorrhage, hepatocytes degeneration, hemolysis, erythrocyte infiltration in blood sinusoid, eccentric nuclei, cytoplasmic vacuolation and dilation of vein. The severe degeneration of the primary and secondary gill filaments, short fusion of secondary lamellae and severe hemorrhage were seen in the gills.

Day 2

KEYNOTE SPEAKERS
  • Harnessing endogenous opioids for pain relief: Lessons learned from endomorphin 2

    State university of new york
    USA
    Biography

    Alan Gintzler has completed his PhD from New York University School of Medicine, USA. He is Distinguished Professor and Director of Research, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, State University of New York, Downstate Medical Center, USA. He has over 100 publications that have been cited over 4,000 times and his publication H-index is 38. He has been serving as an Editorial Board Member of many reputed journals.

    Abstract

    Opioids are the most commonly used and most effective drugs for pain relief. However, tolerance develops to the analgesic effects of opioids, which are also addictive, leading to abuse. Recent research provides insights into utilizing endogenous opioids as an alternative to prescription narcotics. The magnitude of pain relief elicited by the spinal application of an opioid found endogenously, endomorphin 2 (EM2), a highly selective mu-opioid receptor (MOR) agonist, varies across the rat estrous cycle – high in proestrus (when circulating estrogens are elevated) but minimal in diestrus (when circulating estrogens are low). This ebb and flow of spinal EM2 analgesia results from variable levels of spinal glutamate and dynorphin activity, as well as pliable interactions within an oligomer containing estrogen receptor ? (ER?), MOR, kappa-opioid receptor, aromatase (aka estrogen synthase) and mGluR1/mGluR2/3. During diestrus, ER? activated by spinally synthesized estrogens, acts with mGluR1 to suppress spinal EM2 analgesia. In proestrus there is a disengagement of suppressive aromatase/ER? signaling. This is paralleled by both the differential signaling by mGluR1 (when it is activated by glutamate instead of ER?), and elevated spinal dynorphin-activated kappa opioid receptors. These aggregate changes in diestrus vs. proestrus function as a switch, preventing or promoting spinal EM2 antinociception. The finding that the analgesic effectiveness (in female rats) of spinally applied EM2 depends on functional interactions among multiple identified oligomerized components provides novel targets for developing pharmacotherapies that harness endogenous EM2, and potentially other endogenous opioids, for pain relief. This would likely reduce the need for prescription opioids, lessening the current epidemic of prescription opioid abuse ravaging society.

  • Redox-dependent targeting of mutant RAS driven cancers

    National University of Singapore, Singapore
    Singapore
    Biography

    Shazib Pervaiz holds a Full Professorship in the Department of Physiology, Yong Loo Lin School of Medicine, National University of Singapore. Over the years, he has held various leadership positions at the YLL School of Medicine, such as Vice Dean (Research and Graduate Education) and is a Distinguished Visiting Fellow at the Faculty of Health Sciences, Curtin University, Perth, Australia. He is spearheading a group investigating cellular redox status and its impact on cancer cell fate decisions with an overall objective of identifying novel targets for therapeutic intervention. He has authored more than 145 research papers and book chapters and his research work is highly cited in the field, as indicated by over 12000 citations and an H-index of 52 (by Google Scholar). He has been an invited speaker at several international and regional conferences and is serving on the editorial boards of several international peer-reviewed journals. He was elected to the European Cell Death Organization (ECDO) Academy in 2013. Being a Clinician Scientist, he also has an extensive understanding of working with the healthcare sector as well as with the biotechnology and pharmaceutical industries

    Abstract

    RAS family of GTPases is frequently mutated in human cancers. The current therapeutic strategies to target mutant RAS driven cancers rely mostly on inhibitors that either block the farnesylation/geranylation of RAS or inactivate effectors downstream of activated RAS, such as AKT, MEK and ERK. Despite these endeavors, the clinical outcome of patients harboring mutant RAS expressing cancers remain less than optimal. Our recent work highlights a novel strategy to overcome RAS addiction in human colorectal, pancreatic and non-small cell lung cancer that frequently carry RAS mutations. Exploiting the RAS specific activity of a novel small molecule compound, we provide evidence that hyper-activation of mutant KRAS-and not its inhibition-results in massive redox catastrophe culminating in mitochondrial short circuiting and death execution. We also provide evidence to implicate activation of Akt/PKB, downstream of mutant active KRAS, in triggering oxidative stress and autophagy associated cell death. These data and their potential implications for the design of novel therapeutic strategies to target mutant RAS driven cancers will be discussed

  • Effects of cytochrome P450 (CYP)2D6 inhibitions in in vivo toxicity studies of mitragynine

    University of Malaya
    Malaysia
    Biography

    Z Chik completed his PhD in Clinical Pharmacology from the University of London, UK in 2007. He later joined the Department of Pharmacology, University of Malaya and promoted to Associate Professor in 2015 and currently serves as a Head of Department. His scope of research includes bioavailability and pharmacokinetic studies in human and animal models. His other research includes the development of transdermal and topical drug delivery system using semi solid base such as palm oil derivatives and PLGA nanoparticles. Apart from human trials and preclinical studies in animals, his research also covers the screening and testing of natural product compounds derive from selected local plants. He also actively provided consultation to pharmaceutical companies to conduct bioequivalence testing for generic drug products. He has over 30 publications that has been cited over 100 times and has been serving as a reviewer in various reputable journals.

    Abstract

    Mitragynine, the most abundant active component found in the leaves of Mitragyna speciosa, has been proposed to use as pain and opiate withdrawal symptoms reliever. Even though it had been banned in certain countries, however, some people still consume it for different medical indications. In recent years, it has been strongly related to drug abused and several reported death cases. In our study, the effects of CYP2D6 on mitragynine’s metabolism and drug-drug interaction (DDI)-induced toxicity were investigated intensively using quinidine, a CYP2D6 inhibitor. The findings showed that co-administration of 10 mg/kg quinidine increased the mitragynine elimination half-life and area under the curve significantly using a conventional pharmacokinetic study. The experiment was extended with in vivo 14-days toxicity study at highest dose 50 mg/kg of mitragynine. Lethal dose of 300 mg/kg mitragynine alone was identified in the pilot study. Whereas, mortality rate of mitragynine (4 out of 6 rats) at 50 mg/kg was dramatically increased in the presence of quinidine as compared with mitragynine control. Liver markers such as AST and ALT were also significantly elevated at the dose as low as 5 mg/kg with quinidine co-administration. Lastly, histopathological analysis showed inflammatory cell infiltration in both of liver and kidney at highest tested dose. In conclusion, CYP2D6 plays the major role in phase I metabolism of mitragynine and it strongly associated with the DDI-induced mortality, as well as hepatotoxicity. Therefore, concurrent administration of mitragynine and drugs which are inhibitors of the CYP2D6 enzyme would increase fatality among mitragynine consumers or abusers.

Drug Discovery & Development | In-vitro & In-vivo studies |Quality Control/ R & D| Pharma Pricing & Market Access| Licensing, Manufacturing & Health Economics| Generics & Biosimilars Industry Strategy
Chair
Co-Chair
Speaker
  • Bioassay-guided fractionation of marine extracts to drug discovery: methods, applications and last results
    Speaker
    Genoveffa Nuzzo
    Institute of Biomolecular Chemistry-CNR
    Italy
    Biography

    Genoveffa Nuzzo has completed her PhD in Pharmaceutical Science at the University of Salerno at the age of 26 years. She is a young researcher of the Bio-Organic Chemistry Unit of the Institute of Biomolecular Chemistry of the CNR.

    Abstract

    Marine Natural Products (MNPs) represent a source of inspiration in many areas of biomedical science, expecially in the discovery of compounds with pharmaceutical interest. The number of molecules for drug development has been steadily increasing. Identification of bioactive chemicals is a complex task that requires multidisciplinary interactions. Recently, we have developed and validated an improved SPE-based method based on PS-DVB support to fractionate marine natural extracts in order to obtain in one step the desalting and a rough but predictable separation of the main major chemical classes, allowing recovery of minor components, the activity of which may be masked in the raw extract, and the construction of a “peak librarie”. The platform was born within a discovery programs for identification of immuno-stimulatory and anti-infective natural products. The biological analysis of a relative small number of samples (about 250 among extracts and SPE-fractions) give 40% of positive hits with the interesting result that 50% of the activity was detectable only after extract fractionation. The method is routinely used in our laboratory with the aim at increasing the librarie of enriched fractions ready to test which can be rapidly characterized by spectroscopic and spectrometric methods, as well as evaluated by HTS.

  • Angiotensin II confers ischemic neuroprotection in vitro through inhibiting miR-497 maturation
    Speaker
    Rajanikant G.K
    National Institute of Technology Calicut
    India
    Biography

    Dr. Rajanikant G. Krishnamurthy is an Associate Professor and former Head of the School of Biotechnology, National Institute of Technology Calicut, India federally funded Technical Institution of national importance. He is also the Coordinator of the Bioinformatics Infrastructure Facility, the Department of Biotechnology, Govt. of India sponsored Bioinformatics center. He has been an active teacher and mentor, and has been the recipient of numerous grants, funded by the Department of Biotechnology (DBT), Department of Science & Technology (DST), Indian Council of Medical Research (ICMR) and Kerala State Council for Science, Technology & Environment (KSCSTE). He has expertise in wide range of research areas such as cerebral ischemia, multiple sclerosis, cutaneous wound healing and radiation protection. Dr. Kant’s laboratory research is focused on exploiting sophisticated computational drug design strategies for the identification of novel target specific small molecule neurotherapeutics against ischemic stroke. His work has been published in prestigious scientific journals such as Journal of Neuroscience,Stroke, PLOS One, Molecular Neurobiology, Cell Death & Disease, Neuroscience & Biobehavioral Reviews, Physiology & Behavior, Journal of Chemical Information & Modeling, Current Drug Targets, CNS & Neurological Disorders-Drug Targets, Current Pharmaceutical Design, Current Medicinal Chemistry, Plastic & Reconstructive Surgery and Radiation Research. He received Postdoctoral training in Neurobiology at the University of California at Davis, California and the Michigan State University, East Lansing, Michigan. Dr. Kant graduated with Ph.D. degree from the Manipal University, India and received Senior Research Fellowship from ICMR for his dissertation work

    Abstract

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are important molecular players involved in regulation of numerous signaling pathways in cerebral ischemia reperfusion injury [1]. Recent experimental evidences demonstrated that miR-497 promotes ischemic neuronal death by negatively regulating anti-apoptotic proteins [2]. Therefore, small molecule mediated inhibition of miR-497 was suggested as a potential neurotherapeutic strategy to limit ischemic brain injury. In the present study, we adopted a concrete in silico method, which included 3D modeling of pre-miR-497, virtual screening of chemical database to retrieve small molecules that are able to inhibit miR-497 maturation. A novel hit, Angiotensin II, being peptide and lack of pre-miRphilic antibiotic structure in it made an interesting entry as miR-497 inhibitor candidate. The neuroprotective efficacy of angiotensin II was evaluated against oxygen-glucose deprivation (OGD) and reoxygenation-induced neuronal cell death in N2A cells. To confirm the inhibitory potential of angiotensin II on miR-497 maturation, expression levels of miR-497 were checked using TaqMan® MiRNA Assay Kit. Angiotensin II treatment effectively reduced OGD-induced neuronal cell death. Further, it also decreased the levels of miR-497 in N2A cells, demonstrating its miRNA inhibitory potential. The present study for the first time reports the pre-miR-497 inhibitory potential of angiotensin II through which it could elicit neuroprotection against OGD insult. Prospective studies of elucidating neuroprotective efficiency of angiotensin II and also in combination with angiotensin II receptor antagonists may provide effective therapeutic strategy against ischemic stroke.

  • Treating methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) with synergistic drug combinations
    Speaker
    Elaine CWL
    International Medical University
    Malaysia
    Biography

    Elaine CWL has completed her PhD at the age of 27 years from Monash University, Malaysia Campus, focusing on identifying new antibiotics from plants to target MRSA. She is currently a lecturer by research at Center of Bioactive Compounds and Drug Delivery, International Medical University, Malaysia. Her research interests include discovery of bioactive lead structures from natural sources as well as investigating the synergistic effect and mode of action of these compounds, particularly in the area of finding treatments for microbial infections caused by antibiotic-resistant microorganism. She is the grant holder and principal investigator on a number of research projects, with funding from the Ministry of Education, Malaysia

    Abstract

    Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is a major cause of infections in hospital and resistant to all known beta-lactam antibiotics. The limited antibiotics available to treat MRSA, such as vancomycin, daptomycin and linezolid, have side effects. Hence, there is an imminent need for new antibiotics to treat drug-resistant infections. Unfortunately, the development of new antibiotics faces many challenges. The fact remains that only two new classes of antibiotics have been developed over the past two decades; thus, alternative approaches to controlling bacterial infections are urgently required.One such approach is to re-sensitise these multidrug-resistant (MDR) bacteria to antibiotics using approved non-antibiotic compounds. Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are widely used to treat inflammation, pain and fever that are associated with bacterial infections. These non-antibiotic drugs may act through mechanisms that are different from those of existing antibiotics, thus enhancing antibiotic activity or reversing antibiotic resistance. In view of this, we assessed the antibacterial activity of commonly used NSAIDs (aspirin, ibuprofen, diclofenac and mefenamic acid) against several strains of pathogenic bacteria as well as their combinational effect with antibiotics (chloramphenicol and cefuroxime) on the growth of MRSA. The interaction between ibuprofen/aspirin with cefuroxime was demonstrated to be synergistic against MRSA reference strain, whereas for MRSA clinical strains additive effects were observed for both NSAIDs and cefuroxime combinations. The combination of chloramphenicol with ibuprofen/aspirin was synergistic against all of the tested MRSA strains. Although individually less potent than common antibiotics, these NSAIDs are synergistic in action with cefuroxime and chloramphenicol. Overall, this combinational therapy of pairing an antibiotic with a NSAID as an adjuvant molecule presents a potential therapeutic option to treat infections and inflammatory conditions, and could potentially be used in combating multidrug-resistant MRSA.

  • Evaluation of heart rate measurements in clinical studies: a prospective cohort study in patients with heart disease
    Speaker
    Marco Albanese
    Herzzentrum Duisburg
    Germany
    Biography

    Marco Albanese, M.D. is Senior Consultant for Cardiology and Endocrinology at the Hirslanden St. Anna Klinik in Lucerne/Switzerland. Prior to this he was Senior Consultant for Internal Medicine at the Regionalspial Surselva/Switzerland from 2014-2016. From 2007-2014 he was Consultant for Interventional Cardiology at the Heartcenter Duisburg/Germany. Dr. Albanese received his M.D. and degrees from the University of Padova School of Medicine/Italy in 1990. Further clinical training was in Internal Medicine at the Krehl Klinik/University of Heidelberg/Germany through Board Certification in Internal Medicine. He then did post-doctoral research at the NIH-NLBI-MDB/USA on LCAT-transgenic mouse models. He had further training in Endocrinology at the Deutsche Klinik für Diagnostik/Germany and in Cardiology at the Herzzentrum Duisburg/Germany

    Abstract

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the measurement of heart rate undertaken in clinical studies by (1) assessing the repeatability and reproducibility of heart rate measurements by various methods and under various conditions and (2) deter- mining whether a single heart rate measurement at rest is representative of the circadian and inter-day variation of heart rate. Methods Prospective cohort study in 102 patients with various types of heart disease at Duisburg Heart Center, Germany between 2011 and 2012. The heart rate measurements were based on self-assessment, ECG tracings at rest, and bicycle stress ECG in the office as well as 24-h Holter ECG. Results show that office measurements and self-assessment at rest as well as 24-h Holter ECG and self-assessment at rest are highly correlated, but no correlation between self-assessment and office recordings/24 h recordings under exercise conditions was seen. Coefficient of variability was below 10% for the self-assessment and for office measurements at rest. There were no differences in coefficient of variability during the day and within the 6 days for self-assessment of heart rate at rest and circadian variation was normal. We conclude that at rest heart rate measurements by various methods agree sufficiently and inter-day/circadian variation is adequately represented. Under exercise conditions self-assessment of heart rate is not valuable and use of 24 h Holter as well as stress ECG recordings is necessary. Thus, self-reported heart rate measurements by the patient at rest seem to be reliable, but should be used in clinical studies only for heart rate assessment at rest.

  • Antioxidant and anti-inflammation potentials of Moringa oleifera leaf extract in hepatic tissue and erythrocytes of diabetic Wistar rats
    Speaker
    OO Oguntibeju
    Cape Peninsula University of Technology
    South Africa
    Biography

    Professor Oluwafemi.O Oguntibeju is a Professor of Biomedical Sciences and Group Leader (Nutrition and Chronic Diseases Research Unit) at the Oxidative Stress Research Centre, Department of Biomedical Sciences, Faculty of Health & Wellness Sciences, Cape Peninsula University of Technology, Bellville Campus, South Africa. He lectures, supervises postgraduate students and collaborates with national and international scientists. Over the years, he was involved in the field of HIV/AIDS and related-public health issues but recently on natural products and health (Phytomedicine). He has successfully supervised 22 masters and 4 doctoral students and currently supervising 10 doctoral and 9 masters’ students at various stages of their programmes. Professor OO Oguntibeju has published over 130 scientific papers in peer-reviewed journals, 20 chapters in books, editor of three books on diabetes, presented 50 papers at international and national conferences. He is a member of editorial board of various scientific journals and reviews manuscripts for over 30 international scientific journals. He has received various awards such as the Gold and Platinum Research Excellence Awards at his current university. In 2015, he received “Award for Excellence” in recognition of his contribution to biomedical research. He is a National Research Foundation- South Africa (NRF) C-rated researcher and holds a master degree in Biochemistry from the University of Ibadan, Nigeria and a doctoral degree in Biomedical Science at the Central University of Technology, Bloemfontein, South Africa. He completed his Postdoctoral Research Fellowship at the Cape Peninsula University of Technology, South Africa. He is a Chartered Scientist (CSci, UK) and Fellow of the Institute of Biomedical Science (FIBMS), London. He is also a Fellow of the Australasian College of Biomedical Scientists (FACBS) and registered with the South African Council for Scientific Professions as a Professional Natural Scientist (Pr.Sci.Nat)

    Abstract

    Diabetes has been become a global public health challenge. This research work assessed antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties of methanolic leaf extract of Moringa oleifera (MO) (250 mg/kg) in streptozotocin-induced diabetes in male Wistar rats (48 rats). Rats were randomly divided into four groups: non-diabetic control group (Control), non-diabetic Moringa treated group (Moringa), diabetic control group (Diabetic) and diabetic Moringa treated group (Diabetic + Moringa). Plasma antioxidant capacity was evaluated in the plasma of non-diabetic and diabetic rats. Inflammatory markers were assessed in the serum while endogenous antioxidant enzymes (SOD, CAT, GSH, GPX) were evaluated in the liver and erythrocytes. Histological sections of the pancreas was assessed. Treatment with Moringa oleifera in normal and diabetic rats daily for 6 weeks, showed significant improvement in antioxidant enzyme activities, improved antioxidant capacity and a reduction in inflammatory cytokines and chemokine. Pancreatic histological sections revealed the protective effect of MO in non-diabetic and diabetic rats. Moringa oleifera exerted modulatory effect in STZ-induced diabetes by its antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities

  • Colloidal properties and in vitro evaluation of hydroxy ethyl cellulose coated iron oxide particles for targeted drug delivery
    Speaker
    Sevim ??çi
    Istanbul Technical University
    Turkey
    Biography

    Isci S has completed her PhD at the age of 29 years from Istanbul Technical University, Turkey. She is an Associate Professor of Istanbul Technical University, Turkey. She has over 30 publications that have been cited over 150 times, and her publication H-index is 10.

    Abstract

    In this study, superparamagnetic iron oxide (Fe3O4) nanoparticles were prepared for the targeted drug delivery applications by controlling the colloidal properties with a cellulosic polymer that is hydroxy ethyl cellulose (HEC). Fe3O4 particles were treated with HEC in a variable range of polymer concentration. Rheological, electrokinetic, magnetorheological and morphological properties of the dispersions were investigated to have stable and fully covered surfaces of Fe3O4 particles by coating with HEC and obtaining non-toxic biocompatible multifunctional magnetic particles. Fully coated HEC and iron-oxide particles were characterized thermally, magnetically and tested for toxicity in vitro. Then doxorubicin hydrochloride (DOX), which is an anticancer drug widely used for cancer therapies, was loaded onto nanoparticles and their drug loading efficiency was determined. Finally, effects of DOX-loaded particles on the cancer cells were examined to report a nano drug system which can potentially open new possibilities in the design of therapeutic agents. Results indicated that the synthesized nanoparticles in this study could be suitable to magnetically manipulated targeted delivery systems, imaging, magnetic hyperthermia treatments.

  • Development and validation of a modified Naranjo scale for better causality assessment of adverse events
    Speaker
    Manjunath Nookala Krishnamurthy
    University of Maharshi Dayanand
    India
    Biography

    Manjunath Nookala Krishnamurthy has completed his Super-specialization course in Clinical Pharmacology & Toxicology and working as Assistant Professor in the Department of Clinical Pharmacology Tata Memorial Centre, Mumbai, India. He is involved in management of early phase clinical trials (phase 1) and a biosimilar trial. He is also an Active Member in the Data safety monitoring committee playing a key role in the assessments of the adverse drug reactions. He is also involved in the clinical studies involved in collecting the adverse drug reaction data in oncology in renal cancer, hepatocellular cancer, lung and prostate cancer. He has publications in the PubMed indexed journals

    Abstract

    Background: Correct causality assessment of Adverse Drug Reactions is extremely important in day-to-day medical practice. It assumes even greater significance during clinical development of a drug because of paucity of prior information available about a drug’s safety profile. The existing algorithms such as Naranjo scale used for causality assessments are inadequate due to improper distribution of weightage to vital questions. Therefore, a modified Naranjo scoring system for causality assessment of adverse events (AE) was developed. Methods: We modified the Naranjo scale by (a) changing the weightage given to certain responses in the existing Naranjo scores (b) expanding few questions allowing greater clarity for causality assessment (c) modifying the cut-off scores for classification of AEs as definite, probable, possible, doubtful and not related. We then validated the modified Naranjo scale against the existing scale in 19 random cases at a tertiary care cancer hospital using physician’s opinion as gold standard. Results: Nineteen cases were used for validating the modified Naranjo scale. Of these, 6 cases were described by treating physician as ‘unrelated’ AEs and 13 as ‘related’ to the drug in question. The number of cases fallen into doubtful, possible, probable and definite categories using Naranjo scale are 1, 6, 7 and 5 respectively. Using modified algorithm, number of cases fallen into not related, doubtful, possible, probable and definite categories are 1, 5, 4, 8 and 1 respectively. Categories of ‘possible-definite’ are considered ‘related’, and ‘doubtful-not related’ are considered ‘unrelated’. Thus, the modified algorithm had 100% concordance with physician’s opinion whereas the Naranjo scale had only 73.7% concordance. Five out of 6 cases (83%) were misclassified by Naranjo as ‘related’ when they were actually ‘unrelated’. Conclusion: The Naranjo scale showed a huge bias towards classifying AEs as ‘related’ to drugs. The modified algorithm gives better sensitivity and specificity for the causality assessment of AEs.

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